The separation of Korea remains a powerful reminder of one of the most important conflicts after WWII. Also the unexpected result of the Korean War could have happened quite differently if the United States or China had not decided to intervene. The first “hot” conflict of the “cold war” started in June 25, 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea.
On June 26, only 24 hours after the war began, the tanks from North Korea were already at the near Seoul. It was clear that the Pyongyang had no intention of following up the global peace agreements. The United States, along with the UN peacekeeping troops intervened for South Korea. With $12 billion military support, President Truman ordered General Douglas MacArthur to transfer military equipment also from Japan.
Not being prepared for the attack, the Americans and the UN troops were pushed by North Korean troops further south, until the only remaining position of the Americans was the Pusan Perimeter, about 10% of South Korea’s territory. Meanwhile, the American mobilized their troops, while the North Korean troops were exhausted, their supply lines widening more and more.
Therefore, in Pusan Perimeter, the Americans organized a strong defence that North Korea couldn’t break through. So, the North Korean province proved to be insufficient and badly equipped and didn’t have a naval support. To release the Pusan Pressure, Douglas MacArthur recommended an amphibious landing in Incheon, at a depth of about 160 km behind the enemy lines, very close to Seoul.
The Attack proposed by Douglas was very successful. On September 18, 1950, Stalin sent General Zakharov to Korea to advise Kim II-sung. The General recommended Kim II-sung to withdraw his troops from Pusan to defend Seoul, but the Chinese have another opinion, suggesting that he still needs to insist on Pusan to eliminate the Americans. By September 25, 1950, Seoul was recaptured by the South Korean forces and Americans troops, destroying most of the North Korean tanks.
It all ended in an armistice between North Korea and South Korea, restoring the original boundaries. North Korea had officially withdrawn from this pact in May 2009. This conflict is considered to be a civil war, but in fact it was a war involving the intervention on both sides of the two great powers of the world at that time. Some sources are referring to this conflict as a stage from the Cold War.